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Aglutinasyon sa Wikang Tagalog


Ang Tagalog ay bahagi ng malaking pamilya ng mga wikang Austronesyano.Ang Austronesyano ay ang isang pamilya ng mga wika na sinasalita sa isang malawak na bahagi ng daigdig: sa Madagascar, sa Malaysia, sa Pilipinas, sa Taiwan, sa mga Isla ng Pasipiko at iba pa (pati dito sa Roma.... maraming Pilipino kasi dito...)Ang isa sa pangunahing mga katangian ng mga wikang Austronesyano ay ang aglutinasyon.Sa madaling salita ang aglutinasyon ay ang pagdidikit ng iba't ibang mga morpema.Ang isang morpema naman ay ang pinakamaliit na yunit ng isang salita na may sariling kahulugan.Halimbawa sa wikang Ingles ang salitang breakable ay binubuo ng dalawang morpema (break at able) at bawat isa ay may sariling kahuluganSa wikang Tagalog mayroon ang mga tinatawag na morpemang malaya at ang mga morpemang di-malaya.Ang unang kategorya ay ang mga morpema na pwedeng bigkasin nang mag-iisa at na hindi lagi nangangailangan ng ibang morpema na nakakabit.Ang ilang halimbawa ay:Talino, ganda, basa, kanta e…

Adverbs or "Pang-abay" in Tagalog

An adverb (pang-abay) is a word that modifies a verb (pandiwa).
Adverbs tell the listenerHow (paano) the action described by the verb is done: these are known as adverbs of manner (pamaraan)When (kailan) the action takes place: these are known as adverbs of time (kapanahunan)Where (saan) it takes place: adverbs of place (lugar)Adverbs of manner
In Tagalog they are usually formed by placing nang before ma+root word
Example:
I run fast: tumatakbo ako nang mabilis
Adverbs of time
The most common Tagalog words that are used to talk about when a certain action takes place are:
Kanina earlier
Mamaya later
Ngayon now or today
Kahapon yesterday
Bukas tomorrow
Example:
Bukas pupunta ako sa dagat=tomorrow I'll go to the beach
Adverbs of place
Are used to talk about the place where the action occurs. They are usually formed by putting sa before the place.
Example
Nag-aaral ako sa bahay=I am studying at home
Pupunta ako sa beach=I am going to the beach

Adjectives in Tagalog

An adjective describes a noun
Adjectives are words like beautiful, awesome and any other word that gives some information about the thing, the place, the person, the idea or the animal described by a noun.
In Tagalog there are adjectives that are formed by a root word+an affix (like maganda=beautiful) and adjectives that don't require an affix (like bobo=stupid).
Here is a list of affixes that are used to form compound adjectives
1 ma- having a certain qualityExample: maganda=beautiful
2. maka- having a certain inclinationExample: makalaman=fleshly
3. maka- having a certain abilityExample: makadurug-puso=having the ability to break one's heart
4. mala- being likeExample: malasibuyas=like an onion
5. mapag- having a certain habitExample: mapagbiro=having the habit to joke
6. mapang~ mapan~ mapam~ one who does on a regular basis the thing described by the root wordExample: mapang-away= one who regularly engages in a quarrel
7. pala- one who is constantly doing the thing described by the …

Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns in Tagalog

There are three types of pronouns in Tagalog:Ang pronouns (personal and demonstrative)Ng pronouns (personal and demonstrative)Sa pronouns (personal and demonstrative)ANG PRONOUNS:
These are the pronouns in focus, or, in other words, the pronouns that are used with mag-, -um-, maka-, makapag- and some ma- verbs
Personal (panao)
Ako: I
Ikaw (used at the beginning of the sentence)/ka (used in other parts of the sentence): you
Siya: he/she
Kami (we exclusive: excludes the hearer or the person being addressed)/tayo (we inclusive): we
Kayo: You
Sila: They
Example: pumunta ako sa bahay ni Mario, pumunta ka sa bahay ko etc.
Demonstrative (pamatlig)
Ito this
Iyan that (near the hearer or the person being addressed)
Iyon that (far from the speaker and the hearer)
Example: ano ba ito? (What is this?), Ano ba iyan/iyon? (What is that?)
NG PRONOUNS:
These are the pronouns that are not in focus and go with ng verbs (i-, -in, ma-, -an)
Personal (panao)
Ko my
Mo your
Niya his/her
Namin (esclusive)/natin (inclusive) our
N…

Pseudo Verbs in Tagalog

In the English language there are the so-called modal verbs that are used to talk about needs and wants (must, shall, will, should, would, can, could, may, and might).
In Tagalog there are the so-called pseudo-verbs that have a more or less similar function.
The reason why they are called pseudo-verbs is because they have no verbal aspect, so they are not conjugated (in Tagalog there are only verbal aspects not tenses like in English), nor do they have any affixes attached to them indicating focus.
These verbs are:
Gusto like
Ayaw dislike
Kailangan need
Pwede can
Maaari might
Dapat must
PWEDE-DAPAT-MAAARI
These 3 pseudo-verbs can be used both in sentences where the doer of the action is in focus and in sentences where the actor is not in focus
Examples:
Actor in focus:
Pwede akong pumunta sa bahay ni Mario
Maaaring tumawag ang asawa ko sa akin (in this case, because the pseudo-verb comes before the verb, it is linked to it by -ng)
Dapat akong bumili ng pagkain
Actor not in focus
Example
Pwede kong tulu…

Existentials and Negations in Tagalog

There are two words to negate something in Tagalog: hindi and wala
HINDI
The word hindi, meaning no or not, and the word wala, indicating non-existence or absence.
Hindi is the opposite of oo meaning yes, and it is also used to talk about what a person or something is not
Examples
Pilipino ka ba? (are you Filipino?)
Two possible answers: Hindi ako Pilipino=I am not Filipino; hindi=no
Hindi ako Amerikano=I am not American
Hindi siya maganda=she is not beautiful
Gusto mo bang pumunta sa Jollibee?=would you like to go to Jollibee?
Answer: hindi=no
WALA
Wala is the opposite of mayroon meaning there is (example mayroon maraming Pilipino sa Roma=there are many Filipinos in Rome) or to have (mayroon akong panahon ngayon=I have time today).
Here are few examples:
Wala maraming Pilipino sa mga maliit na bayan ng Italya=there are not that many Filipinos in small Italian towns
Wala akong pera=I haven't got any money
nasa kusina ba ang TV?=is the TV set in the kitchen?
Answers: wala=no; wala sa kusina ang TV=…

Markers in Tagalog

Markers in Tagalog play a role similar to that of articles and prepositions in English.
A marker is, in fact, a word that comes before a noun.
Depending on the focus of the verb a marker indicates the role that the noun plays in the sentence: a marker may mark a noun as actor, object, location, direction etc.
ANG and SI/SINA
These markers are used to point out the focus of the sentence.
1. ANG (or ANG MGA if the focus of the sentence is a plural) marks a word as the focus of the sentence except for nouns that are the names of people that are marked by SI (singular) or SINA (plural)
Examples:
Pumunta ang empleyado sa opisina (singular)=the office worker went to his office
Pumunta ang mga empleyado sa opisina
Pumunta si Mario sa opisina
Pumunta sina Mario at Grace sa opisina
NG and NI/NINA
These markers are used when the noun is not the focus of the sentence
Example:
Binasa ng estudiante ang libro=the book is what the student read (the student is not the focus of the sentence, rather it is the book)