Is the "Ay" Marker in Tagalog the Same as the English Verb "To be"?

One of the most common markers in the Tagalog language is ay. It may appear as if ay  is the equivalent of the English verb "to be", because, for example, the literal translation of a phrase like ako ay Pilipino is "I am  Filipino". However, in reality, far from being a verb, let alone the verb "to be", which doesn't really exist in Tagalog, the function of ay is simply to invert the order of a phrase, and in the example above ako ay Pilipino is merely the inverted form of Pilipino ako. In other words, because in Tagalog there is no such thing as the verb "to be", such phrases as "I am Italian", "she is beautiful" or "Mario is a doctor" in Tagalog have no verb and are literally rendered as "Italian I" ("Italiano ako"), "beautiful she" ("maganda siya") and "doctor Mario" ("doktor si Mario"). The "ay" marker simply switches the order of such phr

The Traditional "Bahay-kubo" and the Filipino Concept of Space

In my blog I often talk about a fundamental difference between the Western world and the Philippines: we in the Western world value privacy while the Philippines it's all about pakikisama or togetherness.

This difference is reflected in the way houses are built in the Philippines and in the West and, while in the Philippines, I had plenty of time to observe how the way houses are built in the Philippines really reflects the pakikisama culture.

In the Philippines there are both traditional bahay kubo and modern-style houses, and basically modern houses in the Philippines follow the original pattern of the traditional bahay kubo.

The Bahay Kubo and the Single Room Lifestyle

The traditional bahay kubo follows the Southeast Asian tradition of having a single-room environment where all family activities happen.


Bahay kubo near my wife's house

Modern Housing in the Philippines

The rural bahay kubo evolved into a more modern house, usually made of concrete and hollow blocks (like my wife's native house in Bulacan) with a metal roof on top, where much of the one-room lifestyle remained basically intact.


Our house in the Philippines

The one in the picture above is my wife's native house in Bulacan.

What's interesting about this house is that the balcony runs along the exterior of the upper floor linking the various bedrooms to each other and to the salas, and, because the windows have no blinds, anyone who is watering the plants or hanging clothes on the balcony can see everything that happens in the bedrooms.

The "Salas"

The bedrooms do not open out into a corridor, like most houses here in Italy, they open out on a very large salas (dining room) where all the cooking, eating and kwentuan (chit-chatting) take place.

No Ceiling

Another interesting detail is that there is no ceiling sitting on the tops of the walls, there is only a metal roof and so there is a gap between the roof and the tops of the walls.

My wife explained to me that the reason why there is no ceiling is because this way the air conditioner (there is only one in the house) can circulate the air around the whole interior. 

House Compounds

On top of that the house is not an individual building but part of a house compound where the rest of the extended family lives and in between the various homes there is a communal space where salu-salo (parties), kwentuan (and sometimes inuman) and other family activities take place.


Communal space between the houses that form a house compound

Here in Italy rooms open out into a corridor and there are closed doors and a ceiling



Buildings in the outskirts of Rome: there are no house compounds in Italy and each family unit lives in its own house.

So, yes, the way houses are built in the Philippines reflects the culture of limited privacy and togetherness, while the way houses are built in the West reflects how us Westerners cherish privacy.

Marrying a Filipina entails being willing to understand and accept these differences and being willing to find a loving compromise.

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