Is the "Ay" Marker in Tagalog the Same as the English Verb "To be"?

One of the most common markers in the Tagalog language is ay. It may appear as if ay  is the equivalent of the English verb "to be", because, for example, the literal translation of a phrase like ako ay Pilipino is "I am  Filipino". However, in reality, far from being a verb, let alone the verb "to be", which doesn't really exist in Tagalog, the function of ay is simply to invert the order of a phrase, and in the example above ako ay Pilipino is merely the inverted form of Pilipino ako. In other words, because in Tagalog there is no such thing as the verb "to be", such phrases as "I am Italian", "she is beautiful" or "Mario is a doctor" in Tagalog have no verb and are literally rendered as "Italian I" ("Italiano ako"), "beautiful she" ("maganda siya") and "doctor Mario" ("doktor si Mario"). The "ay" marker simply switches the order of such phr

Personal and Demonstrative Pronouns in Tagalog

 There are three types of pronouns in Tagalog:

Ang pronouns (personal and demonstrative)

Ng pronouns (personal and demonstrative)

Sa pronouns (personal and demonstrative)

ANG PRONOUNS:


These are the pronouns in focus, or, in other words, the pronouns that are used with mag-, -um-, maka-, makapag- and some ma- verbs


Personal (panao)


Ako: I


Ikaw (used at the beginning of the sentence)/ka (used in other parts of the sentence): you


Siya: he/she


Kami (we exclusive: excludes the hearer or the person being addressed)/tayo (we inclusive): we


Kayo: You


Sila: They


Example: pumunta ako sa bahay ni Mario, pumunta ka sa bahay ko etc.


Demonstrative (pamatlig)


Ito this


Iyan that (near the hearer or the person being addressed)


Iyon that (far from the speaker and the hearer)


Example: ano ba ito? (What is this?), Ano ba iyan/iyon? (What is that?)


NG PRONOUNS:


These are the pronouns that are not in focus and go with ng verbs (i-, -in, ma-, -an)


Personal (panao)


Ko my


Mo your


Niya his/her


Namin (esclusive)/natin (inclusive) our


Ninyo Your


Nila their


Demonstrative (pamatlig)


Nito (of) this


Niyan (of) that (near the hearer)


Niyon (of) that (far from the hearer)


They indicate


Possession


Example: ang bahay ko=my house


Direct object


Example: bumili ako (focus) nito (not in focus)=I bought this


Actor not in focus


Example: binili ko ang kotse=the car is what (the car is in focus) I (actor not in focus) bought


SA PRONOUNS


Personal (panao)


Akin me/mine


Iyo you/yours


Kanya he/his


Amin (exclusive)/Atin (inclusive) we/our


Inyo You/Your


Kanila they/their


These pronouns have four functions:


Possession


Example: ang aking bahay (my house)


Direction/Beneficiary


Examples: pupunta ako sa iyo=I am going to you (or your house), ibinibigay ko ang libro sa kanya=I am giving him the book


Location


Example: ang susi ng kotse ay nasa akin=the car key is with me


Demonstrative (pamatlig)


Dito/rito here


Diyan/riyan there (near the hearer)


Doon/roon (far from the hearer)


These also indicate


Direction


Example: pupunta ako doon=I'll go there


Beneficiary


Example: bumili ako ng regalo para dito=I bought a gift for this


Location


Example: dito sa Italya= here in Italy


So these are the various pang-halip (panao=personal at pamatlig=demonstrative) in Tagalog

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